Electric Power Distribution (CEC-2018)

Electric Power Distribution, How is it work?

Electricity is generated in electrical power planets which are usually located in different parts of electricity grid and transmitted through a high voltages network (up to 765 KV) to distribution network ( up to 33KV), then to end users with transformers, electrical switchgears, electoral meters, electrical panels, and electrical power lines.

Electrical power distribution is the process that power is distributed from local electrical substations, power poles, and electrical power pads to the end user customers and Its last stage in electrical power delivery.

The main qualities of a well-designed electrical power distribution systems are safety, efficiency, and considerations for future electrical load increase while considering the maximum load, electrical service entrance location, switchgears, distribution electrical panels and equipment’s.

The reason that we have different voltages for generation, transmission and distributions is that the low voltage for distribution is safer for commercial, industrial and residential electricity users and high voltage electricity is a lot more efficient for long distance transmission.


Characters of a good distribution systems

  • Reliability
  • Voltage stability and proper voltage
  • Meeting the consumers demand (especially peak loads)

The major operation for electricity to reach from production to consumption are:

  1. Electricity generations (LV)
  2. Electricity transmission (HV, EHV)
  3. Electricity distribution (MV, LV)

Today our electrical contractor services, will provide this article about electricity distribution, which is one of three main operations of electrical systems installation, design and implementations.

Electric power is easiest form of energy transmission and distribution and we are going to talk about how electricity is distributed to reach to you for your home electricity, home electrical services, home lighting, and electrical appliances and industrial and commercial electrical electricity use.


Check here for more about electricity

electric power distribution


Main parts and voltage of electric power distribution systems

Electrical power distribution systems are located as close as possible to point of consumptions (cities, towns, villages, commercial and industrials areas), which receive the power from transmission network as high voltage/ medium voltage and distribute to consumer as low voltage.

The process of changing the voltage size is done with step down transformers, step down electrical transformers usually receive electricity (11KV & 33 KV) voltage and change to consumption voltage which is (120/208V, 120/240V, 240/480V, 347/600V).

main parts of power distributions systems are:

  1. Distribution transformers
  2. Distribution Feeders
  3. Distribution substations
  4. Distribution Conductors and Distributers
  5. Distribution Electrical Panels and Electrical Meters

As local electrical contractor, our electricians deals with all parts of power distribution for residential and commercial electrical power distributions including new electrical services, electrical switchgears installation and repairs, electrical service upgrade, electrical power poles, electrical masts, electrical meters, electrical panels, electrical grounding and more: electrical upgrade


distribution transformers


Main Parts of Electric Power Distribution

Distribution Transformers (CEC-2018-228)

Distribution transformers are also called step-down transformers and service transformers, are most important part of electricity distribution systems.

The main function of service transformer is to receive electricity with higher voltage/ lower amperage and change it to lower voltage/ higher amperage [for example if we assume no power loss based on P=IV if input is= 25A,11,000V then output will be= 1145A, 240V), this example for an ideal case when there is no power loss and 100% efficiency which is not case in reality].

In north America the distribution transformer steps down the primary voltage (11KV, 33KV) to secondary voltage for residential consumptions of 120/240 volts and for commercial consumption to 120/208V, 240/480V, 347/600 volts.

So, for 240/120 V the voltage between two different phases are 240V and between neutral and a phase is 120V and for 347/600 distribution transformers the voltage between tow different phases are 600V and between a phase and neutral are 347V which is mostly for commercial electrical services.

For all your electrical transformers installations and wiring contact our Edmonton electricians for free electrical estimate.


electrical distribution feeders


Electrical Distribution Feeders (CEC-2018-102)

they are the main channel to carry electricity from substation (high/ medium voltage) to distribution transform (low voltage).

The primary feeders have high voltage and low amperage.

while designing distributing feeders it is very important to ensure that are rated for the voltage and amperage that is being send from substation to step down transformer.

The secondary feeders are directly connected to end users, loads and electric power distributions and the distribution transformer is located between the primary and secondary feeders.

Distribution Conductors and Distributers (CEC-2018-84)

The electricity from secondary of transformer is carried by distributers which usually are called distribution conductors, and after distribution conductors usually there are electrical switchgears, electrical meters, electrical splitters, and electrical panels, that will take the power to consumers.

  • Transformers Primary Feeders: It’s input to step down transformer and a part of distribution system the voltage is high and current is low (11KV-33KV).the primary is usually taken to the major points of consumptions like commercial complexes, industrial areas, residential complexes, factories, and other point of high-power consumptions.
  • Transformers Secondary Feeders: It’s output to step down transformer and a part of distribution system the low is high and current is high. (120V-600V). the secondary is usually directly connected to consumer and to electrical meters, electrical panels, and electrical splitters.

distribution electrical services


Distribution Electrical services, Electrical Panels, and Electrical Meters (CEC-2018-6-406)

Electrical services, panels, and meters are the last points of power distribution.

Usually for overhead electrical services they are connected to nearest power pole and its connected to the building through wire holders and for underground it is connected to nearest distribution post with underground wire.

For all electrical service upgraded check our website, we also offer 24/7 electrical service and repairs to make sure your home electrical services and business electrical services.


electrical distribution grid


Electrical Distribution Grid (CEC-2018-12)

Its last stage of electricity from production to point of consumption, distribution grid is located as close as possible to homes, commercial buildings, industrial complexes, factories, and etc.

because it is last stage of distribution network and the voltage of the network is low so is not efficient to be transmitted to long distances.

The main elements of distribution grids are electrical transformers, electrical lines, electrical poles, electrical wire holders, electrical isolators, electrical disconnects, and electrical brakers.

As Edmonton electrical contractor we deal with last part of distribution network from transformers, electrical disconnects, electrical panels, electrical meters and electrical breakers, and power line to end-users both overhead electrical services and underground electrical services, we have expert electricians in our teams to provide quality electrical services on those areas.


electrical substations


Electrical Substations

Electrical substations is the link between distribution network and transmission network, where you can tap into high voltage network and with step down transformers the voltage is brought down to end user level voltage. And they are located in every point for power grid for both auxiliary and distribution use.

The substations that are close to power planets are a part of transmission network are step up transformers to reduce electricity loss on power transmission. Contact our Edmonton electricians for all your electrical service upgrades.


Electrical symbols and abbreviations:

CB: Circuit Breakers

G: generator

SG: Smart grid

ESS: Energy storage systems

DG: Distributed generators

MV: Medium voltage

LV: Low voltage

HV: High voltage

EHV: Extra high voltage

EV: Electric vehicles

CEC: Canadian electrical code